Increasing exposure to the UV filters octocrylene and 2-ethylhexyl salicylate in Germany from 1996 to 2020

  • The UV filters octocrylene (OC) and 2-ethylhexyl salicylate (EHS) are commonly used in sunscreens and frequently detected in environmental media. However, knowledge on human exposures is scarce. In this human biomonitoring (HBM) study, we analyzed concentrations of exposure biomarkers specific to OC (CPAA, DOCCA, 5OH-OC) and EHS (5OH-EHS, 5oxo-EHS, 5cx-EPS) in 24-h urine samples (n = 420) from the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB). These samples were collected from German students (20–29 years; 30 males/30 females per year) between 1996 and 2020 (4-year intervals; collection in winter). We found continuously increasing OC and EHS exposures (Jonckheere-Terpstra; p < 0.001) documented by very few to no samples with concentrations of the most sensitive biomarkers CPAA and 5cx-EPS above the limit of quantification (LOQ) in 1996 (5 % and 0 %, respectively) and reaching 100 % and 93 % above the LOQ in 2016, with median concentrations of 4.79 and 0.071 \(\mu\)g/L, respectively. In 2020, biomarker concentrations slightly decreased to 3.12 \(\mu\)g/L CPAA (97 %>LOQ) and 0.060 \(\mu\)g/L 5cx-EPS (88 %>LOQ). This general trend was confirmed by the other biomarkers, however at lower detection rates. Based on metabolite excretion in the 24-h urine samples and human toxicokinetic data, we calculated maximum daily intakes (DI) of 17 \(\mu\)g/(kg bw * d) OC and 59 \(\mu\)g/(kg bw * d) EHS. Based on a derived no-effect level (DNEL) of 0.8 mg/(kg bw * d), the OC exposures of individuals in our study did not indicate any health risk. Similarly, for EHS all biomarker concentrations were well below the HBM-I values of 12 \(\mu\)g/L 5OH-EHS and 11 \(\mu\)g/L 5cx-EPS. Our data proves the general applicability of specific OC and EHS metabolites for HBM in the general population and shows clearly increasing exposures. Higher (co-)exposures must be expected in populations with increased sunscreen use such as (summer) vacationers, children and outdoor workers.

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Author:Daniel BuryORCiDGND, Till WeberORCiDGND, Katharina E. EbertORCiDGND, Stephanie ZülzGND, Thomas BrüningORCiDGND, Holger M. KochORCiDGND, Marike Kolossa-GehringGND
Parent Title (English):Environmental international
Subtitle (English):Human biomonitoring in 24-h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB)
Publisher:Elsevier B.V.
Place of publication:Amsterdam
Document Type:Article
Date of Publication (online):2024/03/20
Date of first Publication:2023/11/19
Publishing Institution:Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsbibliothek
Tag:Open Access Fonds
Ethylhexyl salicylate; Exposure assessment; Human biomonitoring; Octocrylene; Risk assessment; Time trend
Issue:Artikel 108334
First Page:108334-1
Last Page:108334-10
Article Processing Charge funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and the Open Access Publication Fund of Ruhr-Universität Bochum.
Institutes/Facilities:Institut für Prävention und Arbeitsmedizin der Deutschen Gesetzlichen Unfallversicherung
Dewey Decimal Classification:Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / Medizin, Gesundheit
open_access (DINI-Set):open_access
Licence (English):License LogoCreative Commons - CC BY 4.0 - Attribution 4.0 International