Etiology of idiopathic macular holes in the light of estrogen hormone

  • The aim of this review was to identify a new potential explanation for the development of macular holes in relation to the female sex and to explain the possible underlying pathways. This approach was based on the evaluation of anatomical, physiological, and morphological analyses currently available in the literature. The findings showed that estrogen exerts a protective effect on the neuroretina and may influence Müller and cone cells. Both cell types are responsible for the building of the fovea structure. However, this protection may be lost due to the sudden decrease in estrogen levels during menopause. In conclusion, the fovea cones, through its sensitivity to estrogen and high energy consumption, may be very vulnerable to damage caused by a sudden changes in the concentration of estrogen in menopausal females. Such changes may result in cone degeneration, and thus a destroyed structure of the fovea, and may lead to the development of a hole in the fovea, as in the case of macular holes. This review revealed that under the decreasing influence of estrogen may cones play a key role with regard to the etiology of the development of macular holes. This aspect may be of strategic importance in prophylactic therapy for the prevention of the development of macular holes in premenopausal females or after ocular trauma.

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Author:Nousal WergenthalerGND, Burkhard DickORCiDGND, Teresa TsaiGND, Stephanie Christine JoachimORCiDGND
Parent Title (English):Current issues in molecular biology
Place of publication:Basel
Document Type:Article
Date of Publication (online):2024/02/19
Date of first Publication:2023/07/29
Publishing Institution:Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsbibliothek
Tag:Open Access Fonds
cone photoreceptor; estrogen; idiopathic macular hole; mitochondria
First Page:6339
Last Page:6351
Article Processing Charge funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and the Open Access Publication Fund of Ruhr-Universität Bochum.
Institutes/Facilities:Experimental Eye Research Institute
Knappschaftskrankenhaus Bochum, Klinik für Augenheilkunde
Dewey Decimal Classification:Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / Medizin, Gesundheit
open_access (DINI-Set):open_access
Licence (English):License LogoCreative Commons - CC BY 4.0 - Attribution 4.0 International